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Episode 21: — Sin: Old Testament Words for Sin

Series: Sin

Episode 21: Sin — Old Testament Words for Sin

This week Randy Johovich, Marlin Klingensmith, and C.J. Williams continue a series on Sin.

This is C.J.’s first time on the Milligantown Theological Society. C.J. is Professor of Hebrew at the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary and ruling elder at Providence RP church in the South Hills of Pittsburgh. It was great to have C.J. as part of the discussion, and we look forward to him taking part on a regular basis.

In this episode the panel will discuss definitions for sin, focusing on the Old Testaments words for sin. Running time: 48:50

For episode 21, click here.

Program notes: The following are quoted in this discussion.

The Children’s Catechism

Sin is disobeying or not keeping God’s law in any way.

The Episcopal Book of Common Prayer

Almighty God, our heavenly Father;
We have sinned against you,
through our own fault,
in thought, and word, and deed,
and in what we have left undone….

Westminster Confession of Faith

Chapter 19 Section 4

To them also, as a body politic, He gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the State of that people; not obliging under any now, further than the general equity thereof may require.

1. chata (khaw-taw)

Strong’s Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible, word 2398: To miss; hence (figurative and generally) to sin; by inference to forfeit, lack, expiate, repent, (causative) lead astray, condemn: — bear the blame, cleanse, commit [sin], by fault, harm he hath done, loss, miss, (make) offend, offender, offer for sin, purge, purify (self), make reconciliation, (cause, make) sin (sinful, sinfulness), trespass.

Genesis 39:7-9

7 And after a time his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and said, “Lie with me.” 8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, because of me my master has no concern about anything in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge. 9 He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except yourself, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin [chata] against God?”

chatta’ah (khat-taw-aw) (Another form of chata)

Strongs 2403: An offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also also and offender; — punishment (of sin), purifying (purification for sin), sin (sinner, offering).

Genesis 4:1-7

1 Now Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, “I have gotten a man with the help of the LORD.” 2 And again, she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a worker of the ground. 3 In the course of time Cain brought to the LORD an offering of the fruit of the ground, 4 and Abel also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of their fat portions. And the LORD had regard for Abel and his offering, 5 but for Cain and his offering he had no regard. So Cain was very angry, and his face fell. 6 The LORD said to Cain, “Why are you angry, and why has your face fallen? 7 If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin [chatta’ah] is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it.”

Psalm 51:4

Against you, you only, have I sinned [chata]….

2. shagah (shaw-gaw)

Strongs 7686: to stray (mislead) usually (figuratively) to mistake, especially (morally) to transgress; by extension (through the idea of intoxication) to reel (figuratively) be enraptured: — (cause to) go astray, deceive, err, be ravished, sin through ignorance, (let, make to) wander.

Leviticus 4:13-14

13 “If the whole congregation of Israel sins [shagah] unintentionally and the thing is hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they do any one of the things that by the LORD’s commandments ought not to be done, and they realize their guilt, 14 when the sin [chatta’ah] which they have committed becomes known, the assembly shall offer a bull from the herd for a sin offering and bring it in front of the tent of meeting.

Proverbs 5:19

18 Let your fountain be blessed,
and rejoice in the wife of your youth,
19 a lovely deer, a graceful doe.
Let her breasts fill you at all times with delight;
be intoxicated [shagah] always in her love.

Psalm 119:10

With my whole heart I seek you; let me not wander [shagah] from your commandments!

3. ‘avah (aw-vah)

Strongs 5753: to crook, literally or figuratively: do amiss, bow down, make crooked, commit iniquity, pervert, do perversely, trouble, turn, do wickedly, do wrong.

2 Samuel 7:14-15

14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity [avah], I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, 15 but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you.

4. rasha (raw-shaw)

Strongs 7561: To Be wrong; by implication, to disturb, violate: condemn, make trouble, do wickedly.

Deuteronomy 25:1

If there is a dispute between men and they come into court and the judges decide between them, acquitting the innocent and condemning [rasha] the guilty…

Psalm 18:21

For I have kept the ways of the LORD, and have not wickedly departed [rasha] from my God.

5. marad (maw-rad)

Strongs 4775: To rebel. To revolt against a human king or against God.

Genesis 14:4

Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled [marad].

Daniel 9:4-5

4 I prayed to the LORD my God and made confession, saying, “O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments, 5 we have sinned [chata] and done wrong [avah] and acted wickedly [rasha] and rebelled [marad], turning aside [avah] from your commandments and rules.

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